Memorial Spaceflights

Gary Lederer

"Question Everything"
1954 - 2023

Age 68 of Wexford, Gary Norman Lederer passed away April 15th, 2023; preceded in death by his parents Raymond and Florence Lederer, and his brother Raymond Lederer. Gary is survived by his loving wife of 47 years, Roseann Lederer, his three daughters, Melinda (Sean) Dubbs, Terry (Matt) Dean, and Jennifer Lederer, eight grandchildren (Ryan Dubbs, Aidan Dubbs, Caitlan Dubbs, Brendan Dubbs, Dylan Dubbs, Nolan Dubbs, Kaylee Dean, Eric Dean) and sister, Deborah Lederer. Gary was a proud electrician by trade, but his true pride and joy was his family and friends. He was an incredibly wise and compassionate man concerning all things science, especially space and gravity. He recently wrote a paper for the Gravity Research Foundation entitled "Question Everything,” sound advice from a wonderful man who will be missed more than any words could express. Those who would like to give a donation in Gary's name, please consider the PKD Foundation or a charity or foundation of your choice.


"QUESTION EVERYTHING"  written and researched by Gary Lederer

Gravity Research Foundation 2023 - Awards for Essays on Gravitation

Submitted on March 28, 2023


The terms singularity and inflation were an attempt to explain the theoretical Big Bang. The Big Bang is a vague description of the universe’s origin, but a singularity contains infinitely small measurements that conflict with physics. Inflation is a ridiculous explanation for the time and distance problem that requires a pause in the rules of physics. Science refuses to use common sense when using singularity and inflation. The observational shortfall of General Relativity (GR) initiated dark matter. The observation of the universe’s expansion being variable is explained by dark energy. At the largest scale of mass, the term singularity returns. Science only seems to describe this condition as a black hole. This essay will review these absurd theoretical explanations and assist with the observational shortfalls. 

In the late 20th century, observations of stars seemed to indicate the expansion of the universe is accelerating. After confirming this, dark energy was added. This variable rate increase indicates it would be decreasing when looking backward. Can science use dark energy for calculations without knowing what it is and how dark energy’s influence is increasing? We do not know when it started, if there was a longer, slower decrease, or if some contraction occurred prior to dark energy’s appearance. There have been fully developed galaxies found to be within a few hundred million years of today’s estimated age of the universe. Science should stop trying to invent unreasonable ways to accelerate these galaxies’ development to fit their timeline. These galaxies may have taken billions of years to form to the size we see them. The estimated age of the universe, remaining at approximately 13.8 billion years, needs to be altered because the latest telescopes have a high probability of discovering light from beyond this time period. The age of the universe may someday be proven to be over 20 billion years old. 

Looking back at history, the Milky Way was first mentioned before 500 BC by the Greeks.  In the 17th Century, Galileo Galilei proved that the Milky Way was made up of countless stars, and the first galaxies were identified by Charles Messier. Einstein considered the universe to be static when he published GR. The information available in the early 1900s pointed towards our solar system independently floating in space. It was not until 1924 when Edwin Hubble discovered our galaxy was one of many. In 1929, he announced his findings that the universe was expanding and must have a finite age. After a conversation with Hubble in 1931, Einstein converted to the expanding universe position.

With the information available in 1915, Einstein considered it impossible for gravitational attraction to be conducted between the Sun and the planets, especially the outer planets, without it traveling faster than the speed of light. Since he was a firm believer that nothing could travel faster than the speed of light, he determined that gravity must be influencing the shape of space and time to direct the orbit of the planets. He then took all the available data from the planets and moons’ orbits in our solar system to reverse engineer the formula for GR. He also solved the problem of Mercury’s perturbed orbit.

This brief, condensed history in the above two paragraphs indicates Einstein was considering our solar system’s scale without the knowledge of its function within a moving galactic scale. In 1933, Fritz Zwicky coined the phrase, dark matter when he discovered galaxies could not hold themselves together with the calculations of GR. By this time, GR had been cemented in science since in 1919, Sir Arthur Eddington had confirmed light’s curvature around the sun during an eclipse, as Einstein predicted. In 1978, Vera Rubin confirmed that all galaxies need the added attraction of dark matter to contain their stars. 

Even though the observed galaxies need additional attraction to hold their stars in orbit, the stars observed close to the center mass of each galaxy orbit within the parameters of GR.  These orbits allow astronomers to accurately calculate the mass at each galaxy’s center. Also, the over 4,000 solar systems observed so far within the Milky Way have planets orbiting within the parameters of GR. None of these individual cases have shown the need for any additional attraction of dark matter that is required to hold the Milky Way together. If dark matter is present, it would need to be throughout the galaxy. This is further proof there is a deeper misunderstanding that adding dark matter cannot correct the galactic problem of holding its stars if it does not show up in the areas observed. Einstein deviating from the path of Newtonian Theory was incorrect due to not knowing the Milky Way’s influence on our solar system.

Looking at galaxies first then back toward the solar systems within leads to different conclusions. An observer of a typical galaxy’s function with today’s data sees them rotating similar to a whirlpool.  If Newton’s theory were still the standard, what is thought of as dark matter, would be seen as particles conducting gravitational force. The theoretical graviton has been searched for within mass, so I refer to this version of dark matter to be free gravitons. If our solar system is immersed within the Milky Way’s whirlpool of free gravitons, this would compensate for the speed of light problem between the Sun and planets that concerned Einstein. Within the Milky Way, the free gravitons near our solar system would have their density and polarization controlled by the Sun and planets. This section of the whirlpool being polarized by the Sun and every planet would mean the planets’ orbits would be traveling through a pre-polarized mix of free gravitons controlled by the Sun instead of perpetually following the curvature of space. Therefore, the conductivity would be instantaneous between the Sun and any other object within its polarized reach. The interaction of gravitational fields makes the orbits resistant to decay from interacting magnetic fields and the solar wind.

Einstein’s theory cannot do this. Under these conditions, galaxies do not need added attraction, and solar systems share in the galaxies’ free gravitons. This version of Newtonian Theory requires the coincidence that in high density free gravitons also deflect light just as dark matter is observed to do, and it also compensates for Mercury’s perturbed orbit.

In 2012, the Higgs Boson and the Higgs Field were confirmed. This particle is what gives mass its mass. Within mass, it acts similarly to the theoretical graviton. Free gravitons accumulate around mass and extends that object’s ability to attract mass. Gravitational attraction creates larger and larger objects.  When achieving a diameter of approximately 6,000 km, its mass forms into a sphere.  At this point, the internal pressure displaces any free gravitons clinging to the internal mass. They then move to surround the overall object. This displacement of the free gravitons is the point where gravitational attraction becomes true gravity. This function is the only explanation so far as to how true gravity initiates. Einstein’s vision of the curvature of space-time is the exact mirror image of Newtonian Theory at this point.

At the largest scale of today’s gravitational theory, exists a singularity. Astrophysicists believe that when a formula reaches an infinite number there is something wrong.  Since singularities have infinite mass, astrophysicists refrain from referring to them as such. If a neutron star ceases to admit light at 10 solar masses, it should be referred to as a completed neutron star, not a singularity. When light stops being emitted, it is likely due to the escape velocity rising above the speed of light. The extreme density of free gravitons may also be blocking light output.

The accumulated polarized reservoir surrounding each galaxy is part of a river of free gravitons that galaxies move through within the universe. This allows galaxies to concentrate in clusters.  These rivers of free gravitons can be identified by the lensing they produce.  This lensing is also currently attributed to dark matter. Any gravitational waves that are produced are conducted through these rivers.

This essay has put forth an alternate explanation for dark matter with a new look at gravity and the origins of GR. It also exposed some problems with using dark energy to project the age of the universe without knowing any details about its origin or how it functions. Science needs to stop using any concepts that use inflation and calculations that give infinite answers like a singularity. Ignoring the rules of physics is pointing toward an error. It appears what is referred to as the Big Bang could be thought of as the initiation of the four fundamental forces, especially gravity. There is a detailed explanation for dark energy, but it will require its own essay to cover the details thoroughly. Question Everything! If this contrary point of view is not shared with the scientific community, it may take decades before dark matter is understood.

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